- Choose one term from Moko Mead’s ‘’Nga Putanga o te tikanga: Underlying principals and values’’, paraphrase this and explain how it can be applied to art and design. Use citations carefully to differentiate Meads ideas from your own (100 words).
One term that Moko Mead discusses in the article regarding principals and values is Mana. Mead says, ‘’Mana has to do with the place of the individual in the social group’’. (Mead 29). Mana can stand for the level of confidence, power, prestige, or leadership that an individual obtains. Therefore, if an individual has a high level of mana they will have hierarchy over a group due to obtaining more confidence and power. The level of mana that one obtains is often influenced by the individuals family and ancestors. As mana is a highly respected value it is important that art and design works obtain a sufficient level of mana, just like traditional Maori artworks such as carvings and tiki’s which are highly prestigious.
Mead, Moko. Tikanga Maori: Living by Maori Values. NZ: Huia, 2003. Print.
2) Explain one way intellectual property and copyright laws are insufficient to address the misuse of toanga works. Use ‘’Toanga works and intellectual property’’ to inform your response, including quotes and citations where appropriate (100 words).
Toanga describes an object, story, artwork, or performance as being extremely special and highly respected and admired. The article states that toanga is made of two things, the first being that it is, ‘’a creation of pre-existing and distinctive body of knowledge, values and insight’’, and secondly toanga is a result of the amount of work and effort contributed by an individual or group. (Te Taumata Tuatahi, 30). Intellectual property rights is a list of rights that the law grants to specific art or design works of the human mind. (Te Taumata Tuatahi, 31). Misuse of toanga works is when the works are used in a culturally offensive way by someone who is not kaitiaki (a person or group that acts as a guardian or protector). (Te Taumata Tuatahi, 34). Intellectual property and copyright laws are insufficient to address the misuse of toanga works because they are not fully equipped to be able to protect the relationship between kaitiaki and toanga works. (Te Taumata Tuatahi, 34).
Te Taumata Tuatahi. ‘’Taonga Works and Intellectual Property in Ko Aotearoa Tēnei – A Report into Claims, Culture and Identity’’. Waitangi Tribunal N.d.: 29-59. Web. 17 Aug 2016.